Types, forms and methods of massage
In the world there are so many types of massage. Sometimes the same type of massage can be called different terms (for example, classic and Swedish). Almost any type of massage can be called therapeutic. Preventive and hygienic massage have only theoretical differences. We share the types of massage by purpose and physiology of exposure, as well as narrow-tissue types.
Types of massage
І. Types of massage by appointment:
According to the massage textbooks of past years, hygiene massage was most often presented as a variant of self-massage, which was carried out in combination with morning exercises and water procedures. It was recommended to perform it daily for 10 to 15 minutes. Now we consider hygienic massage as a broader concept, covering all types of massage that are carried out for healthy people with a preventive purpose without medical indications. Examples of specialized hygienic massage: bath massage, aromatherapy, etc.
Massage used to improve the condition of exposed skin.
Cream massage is performed as a hygienic procedure. Most women in practice encounter this type of massage, applying moisturizer to their face and neck in the morning and nourishing creams in the evening.
Plastic massage is performed when the skin loses its elastic properties. An example of plastic cosmetic massage among specialized: texturing massage for non-surgical skin tightening in case of residual effects after injuries, burns, postpartum and other stretch marks.
Therapeutic cosmetic massage – the elimination of cosmetic defects in diseases of the skin of the face and neck.
Massage used in professional sports to prepare for great physical exertion, partially replace them and help the body to adapt after the already done loads. Depending on the goals and the schedule of physical exercises for athletes, sports massage is divided into subgroups:
preliminary massage – a short massage aimed at preparing the athlete for the competition. It is carried out in 5 – 20 minutes and is divided into a warm-up, massage in pre-start states (tonic and soothing), warming, mobilizing;
training massage – as an additional means of training (takes about an hour);
restorative massage – carried out after exercise;
the nearest – is carried out 15-20 minutes after training (duration 10-15 minutes);
remote – carried out 2-6 hours after exercise (lasts about 50 minutes).
4. Therapeutic massage – for diseases and injuries. It is carried out by medical workers for therapeutic purposes as prescribed by a doctor.
II. Massage on the physiology of exposure:
1. Classic massage
It is carried out in the form of local or regional effects on a diseased organ without taking into account reflexively connected functional entities. In classical massage, we take into account only the anatomical formations of the massed segment and neglect the knowledge about the zones of combined innervation of one segment of the nerve of different segments on the patient’s body. For example, acting on the lower back with a classic massage, we strive to use massage techniques to affect only the soft tissues of the massaged area, and not on the patient urogenital system, as in segmental reflex massage. Various schools of classical massage with slight differences in technology are radically different in the direction of massage movements:
a) Soviet school of massage
Massage movements are performed along the lymphatic current to the location of the nearest lymph nodes. Basic techniques: stroking, rubbing, kneading, vibration.
b) Swedish massage
Performed against lymphatic current. Basic techniques: stroking, rubbing, kneading, movement.
c) Finnish massage
Performed against lymphatic current. It has a limited number of techniques, including kneading with fingertips. Ineffective, not widely used. (But borrowing techniques from the Swedish and Russian systems, it began to be used on flat muscles)
d) Oriental massage
The direction of massage movements both from the periphery to the center, and from the center to the periphery (based on the traditional Eastern teaching on the circulation of energy “Chi” in a living organism according to a strictly defined cycle along conditional lines called meridians (channels)).