According to the modern classification, four massage systems are distinguished, which are divided into two global directions:
European massage system
Oriental massage system.
It differs from the classic massage technique. Oriental massage is more focused on the work of “points”, is associated with the eastern esoteric theory of energy-Qi and meridians. An oriental massage is performed not only with hands, but also with feet.
The following massage methods are available:
hardware: massage using special apparatus and devices, such as aqua massage, hydromassage, vibration massage;
manual: massage is carried out by the masseur using hands, legs and other parts of the body, as well as using special massagers, brushes and other devices);
combined: a combination of manual and hardware or mechanical devices for massages.
It has now been established that various massage techniques can cause various reactions from various systems and organs.
The impact on the surface of the body is carried out in various ways (special techniques). In sports massage, it is stroking, rubbing, kneading, squeezing, patting, chopping, striking; in the treatment – stroking, rubbing, kneading, vibration, shock techniques, stretching. In addition, there are a number of auxiliary techniques, as well as actively – passive movements in the joints.
Each such technique is performed in a specific sequence and causes various changes in the nervous, muscle and cardiovascular systems.
Each organism reacts to them in its own way; these manifestations depend on gender, age, and functional state. Depending on the methods used, their strength and duration of exposure, a tonic or calming effect can be obtained.
There are five main massage techniques: kneading, rubbing, stroking, striking, vibration. Certain techniques are characterized by specific tasks, each has its own implementation technique, and each massage technique has its own particular benefit. Therefore, the use of different massage techniques allows you to influence different organs and tissues – skin, subcutaneous tissue, nerves, blood vessels, internal organs.
Now about each massage appointment separately:
Kneading. Kneading has a great effect on the muscles of the massed part of the body. There are two types of kneading. The first is pulling and kneading the muscles with the thumb and palm, the second is kneading with the fingertips. The second type is used in cases where the muscles are difficult to pull away from the bone, this is a massage of the forearm, back, lower leg.
Trituration. Grinding is divided into two types: deep and superficial. Deep – this is when rubbing is done with the thumbs, edge, or base of the palm. Superficial – this is when the massaged part of the body is rubbed with fingertips, with one or two hands. Movements should be made in different directions, most often spiral-shaped. Rubbing is often done with massage joints.
Stroking. Stroking is performed with the palm surface with one or two hands. The skin of the massaged part of the body is stroked from the periphery to the middle. This cleanses the skin from the stratum corneum, normalizes the central nervous system, improves the flow of lymph and blood, providing a suction effect. All types of massage usually begin and end with stroking. By stroking, fill in the pause between massage techniques, i.e. after grinding, there is stroking, etc.
Bobbing Basting consists in not strong blows to the massaged part of the body with the back surface of the fingers or the elbow edge of the hand. Blending is most often performed with a relaxed palm, or with the whole brush with fingers folded in a box. Reception of massage “thrashing” has a beneficial effect through the nervous system on the entire body, thereby causing muscle contraction and a rush of blood to the massaged parts of the body. This technique is often used to massage the buttocks, thigh muscles and calf muscles.
Vibration. Vibration is very fast, one after another, uniform, weak shaking. Vibration is often used for massage of the abdomen and intestines, because this technique significantly improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and other body functions.
The main categories of massage
According to the scope, massage can be divided into 4 categories:
Therapeutic – massage carried out for therapeutic purposes. It has both an independent therapeutic function and an auxiliary one – enhancing the action of drugs.
Athletic – is used to improve the athletic form and physical condition of the athlete, the prevention of injuries. There are training, pre-launch and recovery massage.
General massage (general massage is a massage of the whole body, otherwise – wellness, preventive or hygienic massage) – an active means of strengthening health, maintaining the body.