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Skin makes up about 20% of the total mass of the human body. Its importance for the normal functioning of internal organs is difficult to overestimate. It protects the body from adverse external influences (mechanical, chemical, microbial). The most complex processes taking place in the skin complement and sometimes duplicate the functions of some internal organs.

A healthy skin surface is involved in the process of respiration, metabolism, heat transfer, removal of excess water and waste products from the body. The skin consists of the cuticle (epidermis) and the skin itself (dermis).

Through the subcutaneous layer, it connects to the underlying tissues. The epidermis, in turn, consists of two layers: the upper (horny) and lower.

Flat keratinized cells of the upper layer are gradually exfoliated and replaced with new ones from the lower layer. The stratum corneum is elastic, poorly transmits water and heat. It conducts gases well, such as oxygen, and is highly resistant to mechanical and atmospheric influences. The thickness of the stratum corneum is not the same: it is thicker on the soles, palms, gluteal bblast, that is, in those places that are under more pressure.

The lower layer of the epidermis is very sensitive to various kinds of touch. It does not contain blood vessels and receives food from interstitial gaps.

The skin itself is a connective tissue, consisting of two types of fibers: collagen and elastic. In the skin itself are sweat and sebaceous glands, blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers that are sensitive to heat, cold and tactile irritations. Its nerve endings are connected to the central nervous system.

There are about 2 million sweat glands in the skin, especially a lot of them on the soles and palms. The gland itself is located in the dermis, and its excretory duct, passing through the epidermis, has an outlet between its cells. For a day, sweat glands secrete 600-900 ml of sweat, consisting mainly of water (98-99%). The composition of sweat also includes urea, alkali metal salts, etc. With strong physical exertion, sweat increases the content of lactic acid and nitrogenous substances.

The skin performs a very important function for the body – the function of heat regulation. As a result of heat radiation, heat conduction and evaporation of water through the skin, 80% of the heat generated in the body is released. The skin temperature of a healthy person in various parts of his body is 32.0-36.6 degrees.

The output of the sebaceous glands, as a rule, opens in the bags of hair, so they are located mainly on the hairy areas of the skin. Most of the sebaceous glands are on the skin of the face. Cholesterol fats secreted by these glands are not decomposed by microorganisms, therefore they are a good protection of the skin from external infections. During the day, the sebaceous glands produce 2 to 4 g of fat, which is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the skin. The amount of fat released depends on the state of the nervous system and age.

The skin is supplied with blood through the arteries. Moreover, in places subjected to greater pressure, their network is denser, and they themselves have a tortuous shape, which protects them from breaking when the skin is shifted. The veins located in the skin form four venous plexuses connected to each other.

The degree of skin saturation with blood is very high: up to one third of all body blood can be in it.

A very extensive network of lymphatic capillaries is located under the blood vessels in the skin.

The skin plays a very important role in the general metabolism: water, salt, heat, carbohydrate, fat and vitamin.

Since ancient times, people have noticed that the skin is one of the first to respond to violations in the functioning of internal organs. This can manifest as acute pain, tingling, itching, or numbness in limited areas of the skin. In addition, the skin may become covered with a rash, spots, blisters, etc.

The effect of massage on the skin is as follows:

1. Through the skin, irritation is transmitted to the central nervous system, which determines the response of the body and its individual organs.

2. Massage helps to remove obsolete epidermal cells from the skin surface of the skin, which, in turn, improves the functioning of the sebaceous and sweat glands.

3. During the massage, the skin is supplied with blood and venous congestion is eliminated.

4. The temperature of the massaged area rises, which means that the metabolic and enzymatic processes are accelerated.

Massaged skin becomes pink and elastic due to increased blood supply. Its resistance to mechanical and temperature influences increases. When stroking, acceleration of lymph movement in the lymphatic vessels occurs and congestion in the veins is eliminated. These processes occur not only in the vessels located in the massed area, but also in those located nearby. This suction effect of the massage is explained by a decrease in pressure in the massaged vessels.

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